An article by Ashley Walker
© copyright 2016
Japanese Indigo, Persicaria tinctoria or Polygonum tinctoria is a frost tender member of the knotweed family. Originally from China and Vietnam it likes to grow in warm moist climates, often as a waterside plant. Our closest relative in the UK is Common Bistort or Persicaria bistorta which closely resembles Japanese Indigo but has no trace of indigo in its leaves (I did try once) though it does give a pleasant orange on alum mordanted material. Japanese Indigo will grow from seed to flower in one season and, if it does not get frosted, is capable of growing into the second year though here in the UK getting a plant through the winter is very difficult even indoors with extra lighting. We grow Japanese Indigo because it gives more indigo than Woad (approx. double the amount) and the colour is generally cleaner and more predictable than Woad.
Varieties of Japanese Indigo
There appear to be two distinct varieties though I have not seen anyone put a name to them.
See comparison here.
Three strains of Japanese Indigo tested and observations on indigo extraction
Pointed Leaf Japanese indigo
Pointed or long leaf Japanese Indigo. This is grown as an indigo dye crop in Germany and has probably been selected for its ability to grow in a northern climate. It is a more robust plant tolerating colder weather and flowers much earlier. It has pale green occasionally pinkish stems and white or pink flowers which grow on elongated flower stems. The leaves are large narrow and pointed.
Broad Leafed Japanese indigo
Broad or rounded leaf Japanese Indigo. This is the variety most commonly grown in gardens, perhaps because it produces a profusion of pretty deep pink or white flowers. Its stems are thick and also have a tendency to be pink. It seems less adapted to a northern climate and in poor weather struggles to grow – when first planted out, the leaves often go pink or yellow at the tops of the stems and continue like this if growth is slow. When grown in a greenhouse or polytunnel however the plants are greener, although I have not noticed any difference in indigo production between the two, (see link to article on comparison of three different strains above).
Comparison of Broad leaf and Long leaf Japanese indigo.
Growing Japanese Indigo
Some of my seeds are “tricotyledons” and these germinate with 3 baby leaves rather than the usual 2. This is an uncommon mutation and may be a sign of inbreeding.
The shiny black seeds have only a short life (about a year if stored in a cool dry place). They can be frozen in the freezer and will last longer. To freeze the seeds first dry on a windowsill then place in a sealed plastic bag with a packet of silicon desiccator for a few weeks then pop in the freezer. Note: seeds frozen in this way tend to germinate slowly and may take up to 5 or 6 weeks to germinate. Commercially bought seeds are often stored frozen so don’t be too alarmed if you get no germination’s in the first 2 weeks. Interestingly I tried drying some seeds with a hair dryer on a low heat setting from a distance and found that this treatment also put the seeds into a deep sleep.
So, using some fresh seed grow in heated seed trays indoors from early April or late March. Sow thinly and cover with a thin layer of compost. Once germinated try to give them as much light as possible as they will grow “leggy” if kept on an average windowsill. The seeds should germinate readily within two weeks but occasional seeds may not germinate for a month.
Seedlings with secondary leaves at around 4 weeks
The plants are very robust and rarely succumb to disease or pest, they will also transplant readily and can be pricked out at an early stage and potted up if you wish to do this. I usually leave them to grow in the tray until I am reasonably sure there will be no more frosts. Here in Hertfordshire that’s usually around the 6th May. By this time the plants will be quite large and the trays root-bound, some of the plants will have put out secondary roots from the stems and rooted in more than one place. Separating the plants out is therefore difficult and it is best to soak the tray in a bucket of water before trying. Do not worry about breaking the roots as Japanese indigo will re-root itself with ease. Planting in May is only advantageous if the forecast is for warm and sunny weather. If the forecast is for cold overcast weather wait until June before planting out.
Trays of dye plants waiting to be planted out including some root bound Japanese indigo.
These plants stayed much the same size for 2 months before finally starting to grow in August of 2016
These Japanese indigo plants show a typical growth pattern when planted on mass with the larger plants towards the middle and smaller plants at the edge.
Weather is critical for good plant growth as you must remember this is a semi tropical plant. Sometimes the weather never really becomes ideal, in the cool dark summer of 2012 the plants grew hardly any larger than when I put them out. The plants were pale and looked sickly and there was no harvest. This year (2016) many of the plants also grew very slowly because the weather in the early part of the season was cool, wet and cloudy. It was not until late July when the weather improved that they really started to grow. If you have plenty of seedlings you can plant them about 4 inches apart in a heavily manured soil. Both Woad and Japanese indigo require lots of feeding to get a decent sized plant. Manure is the best if you can get it, but other fertilizers will do. Soil type is not much of an issue and the plants will grow on any soil. Clay loams are probably the best. My plants are grown on a poor chalk soil and I have problems with some nutrients in the soil being used up very quickly. Crop rotation is important for me as the plants do not seem to grow well if planted in the same area as the previous year. All my indigo beds need to be given a second feed in August particularly if I cut a first crop and allow the plants to regrow. Even so, many plants regrow with yellow leaves indicating they are short of some vital nutrient.
Rows or Beds? – I mostly grow indigo in beds on mass simply because I have limited room in the garden. Every year however, I notice that the plants at the edge of the beds grow weakly and the plants in the middle are the largest of all. I do not know the reason for this but speculate that the plants thrive best when in competition with each other or there is some symbiotic relationship which allows the plants to benefit each other. I am inclined to the former as the plants also tend to grow larger when in competition with entirely different species. Either way I also speculate that growing the plants in rows is not ideal as the plants are not as close to each other.
Roots grow readily from the stem nodes.
Propagation via cuttings – If you only have a few plants and want to grow more from cuttings you are in luck as Japanese indigo is one of the easiest plants to grow this way. Just cut off the stems from about 6 inches above the ground and place in a container of water. New roots will grow immediately from the stem nodes and the cuttings will be ready to plant out in two weeks. Alternatively just stick the cuttings directly into the ground and water well (each day in hot weather) until the new plants are established.
Overfeeding – I used to think that it was impossible to overfeed Japanese indigo but in the summer of 2017 I did overdo it a bit with some fish, blood and bone fertilizer which is particularly concentrated. The plants can become scorched, deformed and yellow. Initially the damage looks very much like early frosting as the leaves die off, turning the characteristic gray blue. Later the surviving leaves turn yellow and can become deformed. If they survive they will eventually recover without any lasting problems.
Early leaf damage due to over feeding with Fish, Blood and Bone fertilizer.
Yellowing of leaves due to overfeeding.
Weeks later plants still showing damage – stunting with deformed and yellowing leaves
Under-watering – Easily done if you go on holiday or just forget during hot sunny weather. Once again the effect on the plants is similar to frosting and overfeeding.
Frost Damage – After the first frosts of the Autumn the upper exposed leaves are usually damaged first and turn a dark blue-gray. The indigo has become fixed into the leaf and can only be extracted if the leaves are placed in a reducing dye bath. (Reducing agents are fructose, spectralite (Theourea dioxide), sodium dithionite or a fermentation bath).
Early Frost damage on Japanese indigo showing characteristic blue gray areas where the plant tissue has died.
Maintenance and harvest
As a waterside plant Japanese indigo is used to having its roots in water and it follows that it will grow very poorly in dry well drained soils. In the summer months of June to August I have to water my plants nearly every day because I have a light chalky soil. Once the plants achieve total ground cover they act as a shade and help keep the soil damp but they still need water on a regular basis.
Take the first cut about 8 inches above ground leaving plenty of leaves on the plant.
In experiments growing some Japanese indigo amongst other plants. I was surprised how well it responded to the competition, growing taller and greener. In a good year it is possible to take two or even three harvests of the plant. The stems are cut about 6 to 8 inches above the ground and the plants soon grow back.
For an added boost to your harvest once you have stripped the leaves off the stems the now leafless stems can be placed in buckets of water with a dollop of liquid fertilizer and they will grow quickly back. The stems alone have no indigo content.
Stems of Japanese indigo after leaves have all been stripped off.
The stripped stalks when placed in buckets of water with added liquid fertilizer will rapidly regrow and provide you with an extra harvest.
Indoors or outdoors and growing for seed
Growing in a greenhouse it was possible to plant the seedlings out earlier but even then a mild frost in early May damaged and killed some of the plants.
Frost damaged seedling in the greenhouse in May 2016.
Japanese indigo does not need to be grown in a greenhouse or polytunnel unless you live far to the north but it clearly prefers being indoors growing lushly with greener, larger leaves and does not produce flowers until later so has a longer season.
Japanese indigo needs a long growing season to flower and usually only comes into full flower in October. It is self-fertile so will produce seed in a sealed greenhouse but will flower sooner outside in full sun. However, If frosts or bad weather are forecast before the seed has set be ready to dig a few up and transfer to greenhouse or poly-tunnel or bring indoors in pots. In the North it may be best to grow Japanese Indigo in a greenhouse or poly-tunnel. But because it flowers later it may not be possible to get seed unless the greenhouse is heated.
Some growers have reported that it is possible to get plants through the winter by bringing them into a well-lit and warm area where they will flower early the following year and produce seed.
The different varieties of indigo respond differently to greenhouse growth as the photo below shows. This particular variety flowered at much the same time in or out of the greenhouse. The leaf curl may be a response to the extra heat.
The long leaved variety growing in the greenhouse with curled leaves.
This miserable looking plant flowered in June and as you can see has been highly stressed with stunted growth and pale leaves with a pinkish blush
There are always a few plants that come into flower before the rest and it is best to leave these alone when you harvest. A few years ago I began an experiment to try and breed a variety of early flowering plants so I could be sure of getting some seed even in a bad year. This went according to plan and I ended up with plants that flowered in early September and some in August. However, once the plants start to flower the amount of indigo in the leaves starts to reduce and in full flower the yield is very poor. This led to lower harvests overall. Another strategy you can use for getting seed is to grow a few plants in a dry bed only giving them enough water to keep them alive. These plants will become stressed and will flower earlier – they may look miserable but the seed will produce nice healthy plants next year. Interestingly when the plants are in full flower they are very attractive to bees particularly honey bees. I wonder if honey can be obtained from the German fields of Japanese Indigo, as is possible with the fields of Woad in Norfolk.
Seeds from the flowers in the greenhouse. As bees and most pollinating insects could not get into the greenhouse it looks like the the flowers are self fertile.
When the flowers go brown they can be cut and hung up or laid out to dry and some of the seed will fall out. The remainder can then be rubbed out. Separating the seeds from the “chaff” is a skill all by itself. Once you have removed the seeds and dried flower material from the stalks, place the whole lot in a tray and shake from side to side. All the heavy seeds will settle to the bottom and if you are careful you can blow the chaff from the top. This can be a dusty business so you must be careful not to breath it in. Some of the seed will retain an outer layer of brown chaff bound to the seed; this does not impair germination.
Take a few handfuls of leaf and crush them up in a suitable container or blender. Add some white fibre immediately to the mix and leave for an hour. The colour obtained is rather dull and some of the colour may wash out. What remains will be fast and will give you a good indication of how good your indigo is.
When new to dyeing with Japanese Indigo and Woad it is common to wonder how indigo was discovered as the plants apparently do not produce anything obviously blue though occasionally leaves will die and turn a dark grey or blue black. I suspect that someone observed that when crushed the fresh leaves will release indigo but it is only noticeably blue if you then add some white fiber to them. This is a good test to see if your indigo is ready to be harvested.
The broken leaf has turned bluish black