Author Archives: susan dye

About susan dye

Plant dyer and textile artist based in Hitchin, Hertfordshire, UK

Shows Devil's Bit Scabious plant in early June with lush green leaves but not yet in flower. Inset is blue composite flower from previous year

Devil’s Bit Scabious as a source of indigo?

By Ashley Walker
Copyright 15th June 2019

Scan of page 62 of Traditional Scottish Dyes by Jean Fraser showing entry on Devil's Bit Scabious

Scan of page 62 of Traditional Scottish Dyes by Jean Fraser showing entry on Devil’s Bit Scabious.

Front cover illustration showing plant dyed yarns

Scan of original reference from Chemical Dictionary of Economic Plants aparently confirming that a blue dye can be obtained from this plant

Reference to Devil’s Bit Scabious from Chemical Dictionary of Economic Plants

Some years ago I came upon a reference to this bee-friendly and pretty blue flower being a potential source of blue dye in Jean Fraser’s book “Traditional Scottish Dyes and how to make them”. Jean attributed her information source to Ethel Mairet. In her 1916 “Book on Vegetable dyes” Ethel briefly mentioned that Devil’s Bit Scabious leaves, if treated like Woad, will give a blue colour but adds no further details. A quick internet search brought up a number of other references to this plant producing either a blue or green dye. Significantly an entry in “Chemical Dictionary of Economic Plants” (2001) edited by Jeffrey B. Harborne, and Herbert Baxter, states that fibres placed in an alkaline fermentation bath of the leaves will turn blue on exposure with the air, though the active chemical is not identified as indigo. Devil’s Bit Scabious (Succisa pratensis) a member of the honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae) and a related plant is Teasel (Dipsacus), which in turn is also mentioned as a source of blue dye – being apparently produced by dried flower heads.

At the time I was looking out for possible dye plants that had flowers that weren’t yellow, as this would make our dye garden a little more attractive to the eye. I am also a beekeeper and Devil’s Bit Scabious was being promoted as one of the most pollinator-friendly native flowers, so I set about obtaining some seed. I was disappointed however to find that although you can buy the seed it has very poor viability. My first attempt resulted in no germinations and the second attempt only produced 5 plants out of around 500 seeds. In the end I bought some plants from the Rosy Bee plant nursery and planted them in the dye garden where they have positively thrived. Finally (3 years later) I had enough plant material to try extracting the blue dye.

Method

Leaves of the Devil's Bit Scabious looking very much like Woad leaves

Basal leaves of Devil’s Bit Scabious which bear close resemblance in both size, colour and shape to Woad leaves.

All references to the extraction process say that the basal leaves should be used and that they should be treated just like Woad i.e. placed in an alkaline fermentation bath (possibly the urine bath). I was not happy about using urine, so instead opted for Jenny Dean’s recipe for hot extraction of indigo from Woad using ammonia as the alkali. In addition, I did a more conventional dye extraction by simmering the leaves for 1 hour and straining the liquor; then dyeing mordanted wool yarn in a heated dyebath with and without adding soda ash to raise the pH. Finally I set up a solar dyeing jar with leaves, wool yarn and some soda ash to make the liquid alkaline and set it aside in a warm place to ferment.

Results

Jenny Dean’s indigo from Woad extraction

After pouring boiling water over the leaves and leaving for an hour and straining, I obtained a pale yellow liquid.

Shows pale yellow colour of Devil's Bit Scabious liquid extract

Pale yellow liquid extract.

showing green liquid produced by adding ammonia

Adding the ammonia turned liquid a dark green.

 

 

 

 

 

 

shows colour change from dark green to orangy yellow after reducing agent added

Colour change after adding Thiourea Dioxide to the green liquid.

There was no sign of any free indigo nor the characteristic sherry colour from Woad. The next stage, adding the alkali and aerating was exciting because the liquid quickly went a lovely dark green, exactly as one might expect if there was indigo in there. I had my hopes up now for the first time! The next stage was to add a reducing agent and for speed I used a tiny amount of Thiox (Thiourea Dioxide). The colour of the liquid immediately changed to an orangey yellow – too fast for the normal indigo process.

Both samples of yarn shown are the same shade of white

Unmordanted raw wool yarn vs unmordanted dipped yarn. Left: raw wool; Right: dipped wool.

But I put in some un-mordanted wool yarn anyway and waited. I took the yarn out but obtained no discernible change in colour at all. Disappointment! I did several dips and left the yarn in for about 15 minutes, then did more dips, but sadly there was no colour change.

After drying, the wool does look slightly altered but it’s a bit of a stretch of the imagination to see any blue.

Later, I took some of the original green coloured liquid which had the alkali added and neutralized it with some distilled vinegar. The colour instantly changed back to yellow, indicating pretty conclusively that there was no indigo in it.

Color changes from green to orangy yellow when liquid is neutralised with white vinegar

lowering the pH of the green liquid with vinegar brings it back to an orange yellow.

Conventional extraction

Pale yellow alum mordanted wool top. Grey iron mordanted wool bottom

Mordanted wool yarn dyed in liquid extract before alkali was added.

Alum mordanted wool gave a pale straw yellow with no hint of green. Dyeing time ½hour.
Iron mordanted wool, unexpectedly, gave a rather nice slightly warm grey. Dyeing time 15mins.

Shows different colours obtained by mordanting the wool with alum, copper and iron

Colours obtained with three different mordants after leaving in alkaline Devil’s Bit Scabious dye bath over night.

After adding the soda ash, the liquid darkened off as expected to a greeny yellow though not as green as when using ammonia. Wool samples mordanted with alum, iron and copper were introduced and, after rinsing in clean water, produced a similar set of colours after about ½ an hour. At this point I decided to leave the samples in overnight. In the morning the alum mordanted sample was much the same but the iron mordanted sample had turned from grey to a warm brown. The copper mordanted wool was an attractive greenish bronze. Depth of colour had not increased during the night. Rinsing the yarn removed the green tint of the dye bath.

Discussion

The acute sensitivity to pH tells me that the chemicals producing the green colour in the alkali extract are not dyes and will not even attach to mordanted wool. The grey and light brown colours obtained with mordanted wool suggests that there are natural tannins in the leaves and also a yellow dye. The entry in the “Chemical Dictionary of Economic Plants” says the active dye chemical is a seco-iridoid glucoside. Internet searches suggest that these molecules protect the plant from predators and pathogens and are of interest for their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and possible anti-cancer properties. I did find a reference to an iridoid called genipin which in a weak acid is reported to produce a soluble blue pigment in the presence of oxygen with potential as a food colourant. But to obtain this blue pigment seems to require a chemical laboratory! And there appears to be no logical chemical link to the indigo molecule.

I speculate that the mythical blue colour is one of those confusions that get passed from one source to another without anyone really testing it out. If by some miracle there is a blue dye to be had it is not indigo. Possibly someone at some point mistakenly put Woad leaves into a bath of Devil’s Bit Scabious, they are remarkably similar in shape and size. Or perhaps someone just assumed that since the blue/green was obtained in an alkaline bath identical to a Woad leaf extraction bath then they must be the same dyes.

Shows jar filled with leaves of Devil's Bit Scabious, water with a bit of soda ash added and wool yarn.

Hopefully this solar dye jar experiment is about as close as I can get to the original assertion that Devil’s Bit Scabious fermented in an alkaline liquid will give blue.

The results of the solar dye experiment will take some time. I think it is unlikely there will be any blue or green but we will see.

One further thought, there could be a bit of a pattern developing here, searching for a blue from Elecampane root (see blog post) I discovered a rather nice grey could be obtained. Here again I get another grey. Perhaps this is more evidence that the colour grey was often referred to as blue in earlier days.

Well, I’m keeping the Devil’s Bit Scabious in the Dye garden. It really is a fantastic pollinator-friendly plant and it looks good too.

References

Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages – Industrial Applications for Improving Food Color. Edited by: Reinhold Carle and Ralf M. Schweiggert. 2016.

Jenny Dean’s Wild Colour. http://www.jennydean.co.uk/

Resources

Rosy Bee – Plants for bees.
http://www.rosybee.com/plants/devils-bit-scabious-succisa-pratensis

Image showing young seedlings of Japanese Indigo in premature flower

Premature Flowering in Japanese Indigo

By Ashley Walker
Copyright 10th June 2019

This year I’ve had two reports of people in the UK growing Japanese Indigo from our seeds and experiencing premature flowering in May. I also read with interest Deb McClintock’s blog post about her early self-seeded Japanese Indigo (in mid-Texas in the USA) which germinated in early February and flowered in May. In the first two cases the plants were not remotely big enough to harvest, so this is very disappointing – doubly so since once the plants put out flower heads the amount of indigo in the leaves starts to decrease. Deb McClintock was able to harvest her “bonus crop” but she noted that it had not grown as well as her normal summer crop. Ideally the plants should grow to a large size before flowering in August/September.

So what is going on and what can be done to prevent this?

In all plants, flowering is often stimulated by the experience of stress e.g. unnaturally high or low temperatures, insufficient water or nutrients and pest damage. However, in the above examples the plants were being treated very well. My first thought was that the main cause of the early flowering was day length. In all three cases the Japanese Indigo seeds germinated in January/February when the day length is short. However, I can’t rule out low temperatures since this is the middle of winter in the UK (latitude=50deg N) and the night-time temperature in Mid Texas is going to get pretty low. Also in the UK in 2019 we experienced a Spring with extreme temperature swings and unusually late frosts.

I can find no definitive information online to suggest that low temperature is a known trigger for flowering in Japanese Indigo. But looking in my copy of ‘Handbook of Natural Colorants’ I see that day length is reported as the critical factor for Japanese Indigo, but other influences are not excluded. However it does say that Chinese Woad (Isatis indigotica) will flower if it experiences night time temperatures below 10°C (50°F).

In all three reports of early flowering, the plants received no artificial lighting and were grown in relatively frost free conditions, although they probably did experience night time temperatures well below 10°C. But of course the day length conditions in mid-Texas are considerably less variable than in the UK. (Mid-Texas latitude is approx. 35 degrees North compared to approx. 50 Degrees North here in Southern England).

The Handbook of Natural Colorants recommends sowing Japanese Indigo in April in mid Europe, with a first harvest in July or early August just before the flower heads start to form. It’s interesting to note that by this point in our summer, the day length has started to shorten but night-time temperatures are usually still over 15°C (60°F), so that should rule out cold temperatures as a trigger and points the finger at shortening day length.

However, my own observations in Hitchin for 2018 is that flowering was very late (September/October) following an exceptionally hot long Summer and warm Autumn. This is a much later flowering than normal.  This is confusing because it suggests that the high temperatures prevent day length from being the dominant factor in triggering flowering. No doubt someone out there (perhaps the professional Japanese Indigo farmers) will know the definitive answer but at the present time I’m not sure if it is short day-length or temperature stress which is the most important trigger for flowering. But in either case the solution is the same.

In Southern England, no matter how warm the early Spring, don’t be tempted to sow your Japanese Indigo seeds before April, unless you are able to give them some artificial light to lengthen their day. Giving them a little warmth (particularly at night) is a good idea too. If the plants do start flowering early, pinching out the whole top of the plant may reset them back to vegetative growth. If the plants are large enough it may also work to take stem cuttings in water (cut out the flowering tips). If these measures fail, new seeds can still be sown as late as June in the South of England.

shows seeds being propagated with extra lighting supplied by a rack of flourescent bulbs. Purpose is to boost light levels to stop seedlings becomming "leggy" and also to increase day length

In my own case, I use heated seed trays and artificial lighting on a timer.

 

Happy growing!

References

Handbook of Natural Colorants (2009), edited by Thomas Bechtold and Rita Mussak, Chapter 7 by Philip John and Luciana Gabriella Angelini.

Deb McClintock’s blog, https://debmcclintock.me/2019/05/27/new-tools-dried-indigo/

Thanks to:

Brian Bond for the photo of Japanese Indigo in premature flower.

Sue Prior

Field Madder plant showing tiny pink four petaled flowers

Natures Rainbow Garden Update – Spring 2019

By Ashley Walker
Copyright 8th May 2019

The weather here has followed the pattern of recent springs by being dry, sunny and warm with cold intervals and frosty nights. Planting out of the Japanese indigo will have to wait for a week or two yet but most plants are thriving. Time to look at last year’s plantings and make an assessment of what has worked and what has not. Last year we embarked on growing a number of new plants, many of which are relatives of Common Madder. Of course many folks have said “What on earth are you doing that for? There is no better plant than Common Madder!” That of course is true but in the past many of these madder relatives were used as dye plants and prized for their colours so we thought we’d try and find out for ourselves how easy they are to grow and eventually what colours their roots will yield.

Wild Madder Rubia peregrina

We first started with Wild Madder (Rubia peregrina) three years ago now. Spring frosts have been particularly hard on the plants as their evergreen upper leaves are not particularly frost hardy.

Browned and crisped frost damaged evergreen leaves of Wild madder, Rubia peregrina.

Frost damaged evergreen leaves of Wild Madder.

Their native UK homelands are the southern coastline of Devon, Cornwall and Wales where they get warm sea breezes that usually prevent frosts, so here in Hertfordshire they are a bit out of their depth. However the roots are protected and soon shoot back once the warm weather returns. Getting a good harvest from the plant is going to take time, even without frosts it’s very slow growing so we’re not planning to dig any up until Autumn this year.

Shoot of Common Madder (Rubia tinctorum) showing browned shoot as a result of frost damage.

For the first time in many years our Common Madder shoots were badly frosted. Not a problem as the plants quickly produce new shoots

Even our Common Madder beds were badly affected by the frosts with many of the new shoots being crisped.

Field Madder Sherardia arvensis & Hedge Bedstraw Galium mollugo

Field Madder Sherardia arvensis A cushion of Field Madder growing under a Weld plant with Sawort to the left. This plant self seeded last year and has come through the winter without any frost or snow damage.

A cushion of Field Madder growing under a Weld plant with Sawort to the left. This plant self seeded last year and has come through the winter without any frost or snow damage.

Generally described as an annual weed, we discovered that given plenty of attention this plant is perfectly capable of going through the winter and withstanding any frosts. Does this make it a short lived perennial? Many hardy annuals can do this and provided they are watered and fed can keep on growing. As this plant has very thin roots, getting a harvest is obviously going to be a bit of a test so we’ve decided to do a little experiment by growing Field Madder and another similar relative Hedge Bedstraw Galium mollugo in large pots in a compost mix that should be easy to wash away from the roots at the end of the year.

Large plant pot containing seedlings of Field Madder Sherardia arvensis

Large pot with seedlings of Field Madder.

Hedge Bedstraw Galium mollugo

Large pot of Hedge Bedstraw seedlings.

Dyer’s Woodruff Asperula tinctoria

Over the winter I managed to get hold of some seeds from Rühlemann’s in Germany but unfortunately none of these have thus far germinated. As a native of the northern steppe lands of Europe and Asia this may mean they need vernalization. Some of the plants we obtained from Scottish plant nursery (Poyntzfield Herb Nursery)  died towards the end of last year. Plants placed in an ericaceous compost in tubs seemed to do better than those planted in the chalky soil of our Nature’s Rainbow dye garden. This goes against the generally accepted advice that the plant likes alkaline soils. However, It may be other factors were involved. All of our plants died back really quite early in the year and we were afraid they might die out altogether, but back they have come this Spring and they look quite healthy. They have reappeared at the edge of the planters, showing that last year they tried to expand by producing underground stems much like Common Madder. I guess that this means they are capable of also being quite invasive!

Feathery Green shoots of Dyers Woodruff Asperula tinctoria

New shoots of Dyer’s Woodruff in the alkaline soil of our dye garden.

Ladies Bedstraw Galium verum

This plant has done really well in a whole variety of settings and soil types. It’s also very well behaved with minimal spread. It looks good throughout the year, with pretty clumps of feathery foliage followed by a spray of small yellow flowers in the summer. With its historic interest as a bedding straw, its use in dyeing  and its versatility as an ornamental garden plant, I feel that this plant is a must for any dye garden.

Feathery green clumps of Ladies Bedstraw Galium verum growing next to the greenhouse.

Clumps of feathery green Ladies Bedstraw growing by the greenhouse.

Alder Buckthorn Rhamnus frangula & Purging Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica

Alder Buckthorn Rhamnus frangula. New shoot showing "alder " shaped leaves and blossom buds.

New growth of Alder Buckthorn.

New growth of Purging Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica

New growth of Purging Buckthorn.

We tried planting Alder Buckthorn, an acid soil loving shrub, in a variety of conditions. Those planted in ericaceous beds or tubs have done well but those planted out in a wild setting in the chalk soil here have suffered greatly, though it has to be said, the most damage was done by muntjac deer who clearly have a liking for it.
The Purging Buckthorn did less well, to my surprise. It’s not supposed to be fussy about soil type. No casualties, but the plants have not grown very much in the last year. Although it could be that this plant simply takes longer to get established. The new growth this year looks a lot better.

As yet the plants are too small to risk any harvesting but I suspect it is the Alder Buckthorn that will give the better dye.

Tibetan Madder Rubia Cordifolia (Indian Madder or Munjeet)

We are now the proud owners of one of these plants. Obtained from the German Herb nursery Rühlemann’s, this plant spent four and a half days in a box being transported across Europe, the English Channel and finally to our door and arrived in perfect condition! Many thanks to Rühlemann’s  for doing such a professional job of packaging it up, we have great admiration! The growing tips had faded a little during transit but greened up rapidly on exposure to light.
According to the literature these rather elegant looking plants should just be able to survive outside in the UK, though I’m not taking any chances until I’ve had a chance to propagate some cuttings.  At first sight it looks quite different to Common Madder but it has the same leaf whorls (but only 4 leaves to a whorl as opposed to Common Madder’s 4 to 6) and has hooks on the square and weak stems just like madder and cleavers. It obviously has the same growing strategy i.e. it clambers over other plants, holding on with its small hooks.

Tibetan Madder Rubia Cordifolia (Indian Madder or Munjeet)

The Munjeet plant about a week after arriving. Repotted to a larger pot and already starting to grow and looking very healthy indeed

Rubia Cordifolia plant just after delivery and repotting

Rubia Cordifolia plant just after delivery and repotting

We are ridiculously excited by this latest acquisition and look forward to see how it grows and what sort of dye giving roots it has. According to Cardon* its chief dye substance is munjistin which gives a very bright orange. Like common madder it also contains many other dye stuffs, including a very large range of yellow to red anthraquinones. Alizarin is present but only in small amounts so the overall light fastness is probably not as good. Cardon mentions that there are different varieties of cordifolia as well as a very closely related species (Rubia akane) that grows in Japan. Our plant is advertised as being from Tibet, so hopefully it will be able to cope with frost during the winter.

Self-seeding

Bed of hundreds of tiny self seeded Weld seedlings

A mass of tiny self-seeded Weld seedlings in the dye garden

Cota tinctoria

Self-seeded Dyers Chamomile seedlings

 

Madder Seedlings Rubia tinctorum

This year we have had a number of self-seeded Common Madder seedlings in planters positioned near the house. They have produced seedlings in the garden during the Autumn before now, but these usually die during the winter. I think the weather has been just right this year to encourage spring germination and the temperatures near the house have prevented any frost damage.

 

 

 

 

 

Finally a little note on self-seeding of dye plants. We have always tried to encourage plants to self-seed in our garden, with some success. We have been growing the plants for a long period now and the soil is loaded with seed. Weed plants have been under control for several years, so there should be nothing to stop those plants which can self-seed from doing so. So here’s a check list of what you need to do to follow suit:

  1. Allow your plants to flower and drop their seeds. This can produce, in some people’s eyes, an untidy garden but there are so many advantages including encouraging wildlife and saving your time growing the plants from seed and planting out every year.
  2. Keep your garden weed free.
  3. Dig your garden sparingly, preferably in the Autumn or Winter.
  4. Learn to recognise dye plant seedlings.
  5. Use mulch sparingly i.e. only on areas where you intend to plant out other plants. (Mulch supresses seed germination and encourages slugs and snails).
  6. Try and control slugs and snails. (I recommend organically approved slug bait [Iron phosphate] as a last resort).
  7. Water the bare soil if it becomes very dry.

Three varieties of Japanese Indigo Persicara tinctoria

Finally I have managed to sow all three varieties of Japanese indigo at the same time to complete our comparative studies (see blog post). Sure enough, it is possible to tell the difference between the long leaved variety and the broad leaf variety. Even the photos show the slight difference in foliage colour (the broad leaf being a more yellow green) and the long leaf plants are a centimetre or so taller. These plants are about 3 weeks old and grown under identical conditions. The intermediate variety more closely resembles the broad leaf.

Persicara tinctoria

3 varieties of Japanese Indigo at three weeks from sowing.

More Pests

We have found something that eats madder.

Rubia tinctorum pests

This is probably the caterpillar of the Orange Underwing moth, a known pest in the UK which eats a whole variety of plants. So we’re not surprised it’s had a go at our Common Madder. Fortunately there are not enough of them to do any real damage, but they do spoil the appearance of the plants. We can live with that, so no need to take any action.

Suppliers

Rühlemann’s herb nursery has an excellent collection of dye plants and seed for sale and don’t mind sending stuff to other European countries. Their service is excellent.

Poyntzfield Herb Nursery   Scottish herb nursery sells various dye plants and will sell Dyer’s Woodruff root cuttings. Recommended.

References

* Dominique Cardon, Natural Dyes : Sources, Tradition, Technology and Science   . The Definitive reference book of dye plants and dyeing. If you want to know what dye plants are native to the country you live in you will find the information here. A master work, expensive but worth every penny.

Our back garden

The Natures Rainbow Garden

Would you like to take part in a Nature’s Rainbow “Pilot” Workshop on Planning a Dye plant garden?

Planning and Planting a Dye Plant Garden

UPDATE 9 May 2019
Thank you everyone! We have been overwhelmed by the interest shown in this first pilot workshop.  If you would like to be added to a waiting list in case anyone drops out, or if you would like us to alert you about future courses, please get in touch.

We will post about how the workshop goes after 1st June.

_________________________________________________________________________

Saturday 1st June 2019, 1 – 5pm

Creating a planting plan for beginner dye gardeners, with tips from Susan and Ashley of Nature’s Rainbow. What plants to grow, when to plant, when to harvest, how to maintain the garden.

We have been growing and using dye plants in the historic town of Hitchin for over 14 years.
Help us to design future workshops to share our expertise.

5 places available. Contact us via this blog for further details and how to book.
£20 nominal fee required in advance to confirm your place.

This is a very reduced rate to recognise the fact that the views and feedback from the people attending will be helping to design a future workshop for Nature’s Rainbow.

Participants will have a tour of an established dye garden (as featured in The Journal of Weavers Spinners and Dyers https://www.journalwsd.org.uk/article/the-dye-plant-garden and hear how we manage the mix of annual, biennial and perennial plants within the constraints of our site. We’ll structure the session loosely, so we can maximise the flow of info between us all.

Seeds and perennial root cuttings of madder and small dyer’s broom plants to take away.

In exchange, you need to be willing to provide feedback and ideas on how to design future workshops and bring a simple sketch of your growing space, marking up sunny and shady areas and soil type.

Our house and dye garden is a very short walk from Hitchin Station, with frequent services on the Great Northern train line between Kings Cross, Cambridge and Peterborough.  Please contact us

Susan and Ash

Talk to Lea Valley Guild of Spinners Weavers and Dyers

12 April 2019
I had the pleasure of talking to this friendly guild last night about how to mordant safely for plant dyeing. The group meets in the beautiful village of Roydon in Essex, just across the border from my home county of Herts.  https://leavalleyguildswd.weebly.com/

Here are recommended links referred to in my talk.

Catharine Ellis blog – https://blog.ellistextiles.com/

Recommended books
The Art and Science of Natural Dyes; Principles, Experiments, and Results
By Joy Boutrup, Catharine Ellis (2019)
ISBN10-13: 076435633X : 9780764356339
176pp £57.99
UK distributors – Gazelle Book Services  01524 528500
You can order by phone – New stock arrives UK on 22 April.
https://www.gazellebookservices.co.uk/

The Modern Natural Dyer
By Kristine Vejar (2015)
ISBN: 9781617691751£18.99 from Waterstones
https://www.averbforkeepingwarm.com/products/the-modern-natural-dyer

Sustainable plant sources of aluminium and tannin mordants
Bebali Foundation  http://plantmordant.org/symplocos/

And finally … for safety gloves perfect for indigo dyeing

Gloves –  glovesnstuff.com

 

 

 

Whats New in Natural Dyeing

Exciting new publications for plant dyers

Beyond Mordants from Slow Fiber Studios

Susan and I have long been fans of Michel Garcia’s DVDs on natural plant dyes and pigments. So we were excited and delighted when we got an email before Christmas from Slow Fiber Studios asking to use some of our dye plant photographs for a new DVD:

Beyond Mordants: Indigo Intensive and direct application of Dyes. Film IV: Natural Dye Workshop Series with Michel Garcia

Publication date: February 2019.Michael Garcia and Slow Fibre Studios new DVD Beyond Mordants

Using metallic salts of Aluminium, Iron or Copper for mordanting is controversial in craft plant dyeing as these are all toxic to some extent, both to humans and other forms of life. If used and disposed of with care, the risks can be reduced [See Carrie Sundra’s blog] but many people choose to avoid using metal-based mordants completely.

As a result there has been growing demand to find safer alternative “bio mordants”. Promising plant substances include Myrobalan, various tannins, Curcumin (from turmeric) and Lawson (from henna). In this latest DVD Michel Garcia addresses this gap in current knowledge and shows how to dye and print without using metal mordants.

Slow Fiber’s DVDs are packed with information and can be watched over and over again. They are aesthetic, gentle, informative and a perfect antidote to a stressful world. A friend, Aviva Leigh from Norfolk was the first to introduce us to their work. She says the mark of a true plant dyeing friend is someone with whom you can, with eager anticipation, settle down for an evening of re-watching Michel and Yoshiko’s DVDs, just as others would watch the latest Hollywood blockbuster! The films are soul-food for the craft plant dyer.

It’ll be very exciting to see plants from our dye garden (our babies!!) on screen!

Michel Garcia. Still from DVD “Beyond Mordants” © Slow Fiber Studios

 

New Book: The Art and Science of Natural Dyes

If, like us, you are keen to understand the science of plant dyeing and mordanting in particular, a new book by Catherine Ellis and Joy Boutrup’s comes highly recommended.

The Art and Science of Natural Dyes: Principles, Experiments and Results by Joy Boutrup and Catharine Ellis.The Art and Science of Natural Dyes by Joy Boutrup and Catherine Ellis

This book has now been released for sale (January 2019).

Catharine Ellis is a weaver, dyer and author of international repute based in North Carolina. She specialises in systematic experiments in her craft and teaches through Slow Fiber Studios. Many readers will be familiar with Catharine’s excellent website (see here). Joy Boutrup, from Denmark, lectures in textile technology for fashion design and for museum conservation. Both women have longstanding and impressive careers in their respective fields.

It’s our feeling that both the DVD and this book will be landmark publications, marking a step-change in the systematic knowledge available to the craft plant dyer. So don’t be put off by the prices (Beyond Mordants $52, The Art and Science of Natural Dyes $60).

In our own small way, we hope that the observations that inform our blog are a useful information source, and it’s free! But essentially we provide small snippets of data. Collecting all of that information together into a structured form, providing an expert overview and binding it into a professionally referenced book or instructional DVD takes time and money.

It is my hope that one day I will have amassed enough information about growing dye plants to make it possible to write a book on the subject myself but it will take many more years of growing, observation and experimentation to get to that point.

I can only imagine how much work has gone into the two publications above. Even though I haven’t seen them at the time of writing, I feel confident to recommend them. They are the work of leading experts in the field and I for one can’t wait to get my hands on them!

By Ashley Walker and Susan Dye
© Nature’s Rainbow

Coreopsis tinctoria in flower

Dyers Coreopsis grown as a biennial

Coreopsis tinctoria

By Ashley Walker
Copyright 22nd Jan 2019

In our 2016 post on Growing Dyers Coreopsis (see here) I mentioned that this annual dye plant was considered to be hardy and could be grown as a biennial (seed sown in first year for flowering in second year). I can now confirm this to be true.

Last year we noticed some self-seeded coreopsis growing in pots in the early spring. They had reached quite a size so must have started growing in the late Autumn of the previous year and somehow survived the winter. They went on to produce very attractive early flowers. This year we have some further self-seeded coreopsis plants growing in some of the pots in our back garden which I’ve been keeping an eye on to see how they are weathering the winter. Two nights ago we had a hard frost (about -3°C) and the plants looked quite frozen the following day and stayed that way until another night had passed when they thawed out again. The plants have appeared to recover well (see photos).

Coreopsis tinctoria a hardy biennial

Frosted Dyers Coreopsis plant 20th Jan 2019

Coreopsis tictoria seedling

Two days later on 22nd Jan 2019 the plant has thawed out without any significant damage. What damage you can see has been caused by slugs and snails.

I should not be surprised of course as these plants grow in the North American plains where frost at night in the spring and harsh winters will be a feature of the climate. I suppose that what did surprise me was that left to their own devices the seeds will germinate in Autumn and survive much harsher winters than we get here in the UK. They are after all quite delicate looking plants. This particular plant has a long stem and possibly would not survive a heavy fall of snow but some of the coreopsis we grow have short stems and go through a rosette stage which is an adaptation to over wintering.

Autumn germination does explain why we do not get much self-seeding in our dye garden. Many of the seeds probably do germinate then (when I’m not really paying attention) and are quickly chewed up by slugs and snails which are abundant at this time of year. Only a few seeds are left to germinate in the spring and they too have to run the risk of being eaten.

When we first started growing coreopsis we had no self-seeded plants for many years but in the last few years there has always been a few so I assume the “seed bank” in the soil has reached a level where there are enough spring germinating seeds to ensure some survive. The plants I noticed overwintering are all growing in pots where they do get some protection from the rampaging molluscs – even so you can see by the photos that they have been nibbled.

Coreopsis tinctoria pot grown

Self Seeded and overwintered Dyers Coreopsis in flower in Early July 2018.

So my advice for other growers who desire the stunning displays of coreopsis earlier in the year is to sow seed in the Autumn in an area of garden that you can easily protect from slugs and snails. My plants have survived -3°C but I do not know the lowest temperature they could survive in so if you are in an area that gets prolonged periods of sub-zero temperatures I would also make sure your plants are at least partially protected by placing them near to a warm house or growing in a greenhouse or cold frame.Coreopsis tinctoria in flower

Why do we do craft?

 

 

A philosophical post by Susan

Ashley mentioned in an earlier post that we were recently interviewed for British Fibre Art Magazine (see issue 10 July/August 2018). Rainy, the editor, posed some excellent questions about why we do what we do, which prompted some serious thought and discussion here at home.

Several themes emerged.

Ashley and I both had mothers who made things. My mother was passionate about colour and had a very good eye. Her greatest joy was working at the sewing machine, making clothes and soft furnishings. She was definitely a thwarted designer. Ash’s Mam came from a family of very skilled knitters. I wonder if this gave her the confidence, once the children were grown, to try a huge range of crafts? She mastered many styles of lace-making, was an accomplished cross stitcher and quilter (see Baltimore quilt above) and made all manner of 3D objects. Both women were motivated by mastering technique and producing a beautifully finished product.

Ash and I both studied science at A level and university. I think that’s why we like careful experimentation and are constantly trying to understand more about how plant dyeing works. Ashley studied biology specialising in botany, so it makes sense that he’s so driven to grow and explore different plants. I’m more interested in the history of science and the recipes which have been lost.

I also realise that not having children (I had cancer in my mid twenties) has affected our life choices a great deal. We were freer to downshift when the mortgage was paid off and there were fewer external pressures on us to conform.

This doesn’t mean we haven’t thought a lot about what we might ‘leave behind’ after we’re gone.  And what constitutes ‘right living’. While we were in well-paid work we supported various charities. After we shifted to part-time lower paid work, we became were involved in local community projects and environmental campaigning. Ashley retrained in horticultural therapy and got enormous fulfilment from enabling people be happier and more active through gardening and the outdoors.

Gradually, over the last two decades, we have moved further away from the mainstream as we have managed on a steadily lower income. This has an interesting effect. It’s like being on a permanent retreat at a 10% level. You see things slightly from one side, more critically. The mainstream media is less relevant. You spend more of your time producing rather than consuming. For example, in the 2000s we made huge amounts of very passable wine, excellent jam and lots of vegetables. Our focus gradually shifted onto beekeeping and plant dyeing, which at least offered the opportunity of some income rather than risking liver failure and tooth decay!

In the process, we also had the time and emotional capacity for hands-on care for friends and relatives. This isn’t something we anticipated. It emerged out of making deeper connections in our neighbourhood when I got involved with transport campaigning locally. When you find careers away from where you grew up and you don’t have children and you are quite extreme introverts, you don’t make friends on your doorstep easily. Suddenly we entered a fascinating network of extraordinary people. Maybe it’s special to Hitchin, or special to the particular neighbourhood where we live, but I suspect every street has these networks waiting to welcome you in.

One such very special friendship was with Diane who tragically developed motor neurone disease. By 2005 our work/life situation was flexible enough that I was able to join the team of friends and family who supported Diane so she could have her wish to remain at home throughout her illness. This gave us the experience and confidence to home-hospice, first Ashley’s Mam and then my own mother as they in turn developed cancer and died. We didn’t do this unsupported. There were  palliative care services in the community in both cases. Siblings also helped. But we were able to be fully present and ‘live in’ when our mothers needed us. Both times it was heart-rending and emotionally exhausting but it also felt completely the right thing to do and we have no regrets.

So how does this relate to modern craft?

I read a book by Professor Susan Luckman last week at the British Library: Craft and the Creative Economy[1]. And it all fell into place.

She explores from all angles why the hand craft movement is currently thriving in developed economies. What desires and needs are being fulfilled for the maker and consumer?  Is small scale hand-made artisan production an act of resistance to unsustainable capitalism, a distraction or a self-soothing coping strategy? She explores whether the popular archetype of the entrepreneurial craftsperson with a balanced home/work life is a fantasy, a romantic ideal or a valuable alternative microeconomic niche. Perhaps the popularity of the ‘home made’ reveals the depth of hunger for meaning and making ethical retail choices? People want in some way to reject mass consumption of disposable items where the environmental and social impacts are externalised, hidden from view.

Luckman resists any simple answers. She accepts that the craft movement is tiny in the grand scheme of things and mostly serves a privileged elite. She is also deeply sceptical of the gender stereotype of the glamorous ideal female – attractive wife, mother, home-maker and entrepreneur running it all from home and letting you, the customer, see every detail of the home environment where this blissful production takes place. She warns against the fetishisation of hand tools and a false dichotomy of design and making.  And she accepts that crafting is a soft option compared to politics for changing the world for the better.

But, she does come down on the side of hand-made crafted items having a special quality for the maker and the consumer, which might signal a future with more sustainable and kinder economic models. She likes Jane Bennett’s[2] concept of ‘vibrant matter’ and ‘enchantment’ to explain the emotional responses many people have to the hand made.  This suggests that hand made items that are aesthetically pleasing, made of natural materials, carrying visible signs of the making process (or accompanied by a story online) do broaden attitudes to consumption, valuing and repair. They do pose questions that can be more broadly asked about sourcing, embedded energy, lifecycle and sense of purpose.

Luckman also suggest as crafters we should be bolder. The emotional desire for the hand made should not be underestimated. It is not naïve. As crafters we should be proud to “dig where we stand” and not be afraid to shout about our values and ideals. Without giving in to a pressure to conform to airbrushed social media archetypes, we can powerfully affect people who connect with what we make. We can ‘tweak and bend capitalism’ and create ‘useful and healthy identities as workers’.

I realise that I am already living in what Luckman calls the ‘downshifted cultural economy’. Ashley and I are practicing craft for the enchantment of making vibrant objects, enhancing our wellbeing and usefully supplementing what Luckman describes as a ‘larger strategy of downshifted and slower living’.

Having read her book, I feel empowered to be bolder, tell more about my choices, my politics, my wider values and my struggles to navigate this territory.  She recommends not feeling ashamed to keep telling your story as you go through life’s ups and downs, share how you are actively designing your life. It might have a bigger effect than you imagine.

[1] Luckman, Susan (2015) Craft and the Creative Economy[1] Palgrave Macmillan

[2] Bennett, Jane (2001) The enchantment of modern life: attachments, crossings and ethics. Princeton University Press; Bennett, Jane (2010) Vibrant matter: a political ecology of things, Duke University Press.

Follow up to Talk to Region 7 Quilters Guild 6 Oct 2018

Madder, Weld and Woad dyed quilt

‘The River Ran Red’ A plant dyed quilt by Susan Dye. Mixed fabrics 2015

On Saturday 6th October I gave a talk about my quilt, ‘The River Ran Red’ at Eaton Bray  for Region 7 of the UK Quilters Guild.

This region covers Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Northamptonshire. And what a friendly and well organised group they are!

These regional days pack a lot in: traders’ stalls, a big bring and buy table and a raffle for guild funds, superb cake, show and tell of members’ quilts and, of course, talks.

The phenomenon that is Philippa Naylor

In the morning we were in for a treat. The speaker was international prize winning quilter Philippa Naylor. I have long admired Philippa’s exquisite, flowing whole cloth quilting, but I never realised what an absolute hoot she is. Her main message to the audience was that we should enjoy life to the full and that success does not depend on unique special talents or gifts. She told us that her success is down to dedication and lots of hard work. Anyone can achieve an outstanding standard of work, if you have the discipline and commitment. She says life is short, so do what you love and work at it until you become really good. She did also emphasise that having been born in Yorkshire helps, it gives you grit!

It was clear that Philippa knows how to remain connected to joy and fun which fuels her creativity and staying power. She entertained us in words and pictures with details of what she really loves in life. Family, her chickens and ducks, her flower and vegetable garden, her home, her county, beauty and nature. Hard not to smile just remembering how she conveyed her passion for life. And all of this shines through in her stunning quilts, several of which were on show.

River Ran Red Quilt

More modestly, the group heard a talk in the afternoon from me about my City and Guilds quilt inspired by the 19th Century Norwich Shawls. With added info on our dye garden and how to use grand teint plant dyes to achieve bright and fast colours on fabrics.

Here are some links I promised for anyone interested in learning more.

Costume and Textile Association (C&TA) – http://www.ctacostume.org.uk

Norfolk Museums Service https://www.museums.norfolk.gov.uk

The Museum of Norwich at the Bridewell has a Jacquard loom and displays of Norwich textiles.

The Castle Museum holds one of the country’s leading costume and textile collections.

Textile tours often feature as part of Norfolk and Norwich Festival https://nnfestival.org.uk/ and are also promoted by the C&TA. A good general trail is https://www.ifootpath.com/display-ifootpath-walk?walkID=839. The official tourist information centre tours take different themes every year and the programme can be found here https://www.visitnorwich.co.uk/shopping/shops/listing/tourist-information-centre/

Aviva Leigh – now based in the Norfolk market town of Aylsham – is a tinctorialist and designer who has studied and promoted the history of Norwich textiles and recently presented her work for the Geoffrey Squire Bursary Award of the CT&A recreating dyed woven textiles from 18C Norwich pattern books.

https://www.avivaleigh.com/colour-stories/2018/10/11/strips-stripes-amp-stories-exploring-18th-century-norwich-textiles

Books

Clabburn, Pamela (1995) The Norwich Shawl. Norfolk Museums Service London HMSO.

Hoyte, Helen (2010) The Story of the Norwich Shawl. Norwich: N. Williams.

Morris, Thelma (2008) Made in Norwich; 700 Years of Textile Heritage, Norwich: N.Williams.

Chenciner, R. (2000) Madder Red, A history of luxury and trade. Curzon, Caucasus World

Dean, J. Wild Colour – How to Grow, Prepare and Use Natural Plant Dyes. Mitchell Beazley, 2010

Liles, J. N. The Art and Craft of Natural Dyeing: Traditional Recipes for Modern Use University of Tennessee Press, 1990

Cardon, D. Natural Dyes: Sources, Tradition, Technology and Science. Archetype Publications Ltd 2003

Suppliers

Mordants and plant dyes :

Willo Fibres http://www.willofibres.co.uk
Tim and Denise have taken over the dye supply business of P&M Woolcraft.

Helen Melvin at Fiery Felts http://www.fieryfelts.co.uk/shop/

For plants – a lovely family run nursery in Wales – https://www.7wells.co.uk

Natures Rainbow new plants 2018

The Natures Rainbow Garden 2018 – Part Two, New Plants

By Ashley Walker
Copyright August 2018

Introduction

Since the industrialisation of synthetic dyes most of the knowledge of plant dyes was lost in Europe until it was partially revived by craftspeople like Ethel Mairet and Later Jill Goodwin, Hetty Wickens, Jim Liles, Jenny Dean and many others. Jill Goodwin lists 140 dye plants alone in her book “A Dyer’s Manual”. Reading the books of these trailblazers has given me an almost obsessive interest in some of these plants – how to grow them, how they are related, what dyes do they have in common etc.  In today’s plant dye world we seem to have concentrated on just a handful of key plants (such as Madder, Japanese indigo, and Weld) which give the best and most light fast colours. People still like to try dyeplant materials that are easily foraged and some of these produce good colours, but many are short lived. Personnally I think that foraging in an already over exploited environment is a practice that should be avoided if possible and I want to grow the plants myself, find out more about them, what they look like, how they grow, what sort of conditions they like, how closely related they are, what pests eat them etc. Natural dyeing is a step on the way to connecting with our precious environment and finding out about and growing the plants we use is another step.

Some while back I realised that Common Madder has a host of relatives, some of which are actually native to the British Isles. As you would expect with close relatives, these plants are similar in appearance and habit. They are all clambering or creeping plants with weak, square stems and thin spikey leaves which usually grow in whorls from the stems.

There follows a list of some of the experiences I’ve had with new plants this year starting with relatives of Common Madder. Where possible I obtained seeds and started them indoors in seed trays in March/April, planting out in May.

Dyers Woodruff – Asperula tinctoria

Asperula tinctoria

Dyer’s Woodruff

Asperula tinctoria

Dyer’s Woodruff in flower

I was unable to obtain any seeds for this madder relative so I was very pleased to discover a Scottish plant nursery (Poyntzfield Herb Nursery)  selling the plants. In March, they sent a big bundle of bare rooted plants wrapped in sphagnum moss.  But as we were then still experiencing freezing and wet conditions I potted up the thick red roots in some ordinary potting compost. Most of these have grown well but a few died after initial good growth. There remain a few which are struggling with yellow brownish foliage even though I planted them out in a variety of soil types. I’m not at all sure what the problem is. Dyer’s Woodruff is an attractive feathery plant similar to its relatives with two to four small thin leaves at intervals along its stem. Small white flowers appeared in June. Now in early August it looks as if a tiny few are developing seeds, which I hope I’ll be able to save. The roots are not as large as madder but they are quite respectable and I’m thinking that of all the new madder relatives we obtained this year this is the most promising. The books say it will grow in acid and alkaline soils and can also grow in partial shade. I’m testing this out.

Ladies Bedstraw – Galium verum

Galium verum

Ladies Bedstraw in flower

Galium verum

A clump of young Ladies bedstraw plants will grow into a cushion and then a carpet.

This plant is native to Hertfordshire and happily grows in chalk soil meadows. It will also grow in many other conditions, including poor sandy soils. The leaves are smaller than Dyer’s Woodruff but have whorls of six leaves at intervals along its stem, much like madder. This plant has grown from seed very robustly. I planted seedlings out in clumps of 15 to 20 creating very attractive cushions of feathery green foliage. These have  grown into ground covering carpets with flower stems reaching 6-12 inches high, with tight clusters of pretty yellow flowers in July/August. It makes an excellent trailing plant and although the flowers don’t last long it would make an attractive contrast to some more showy flowers. In the wild this plant is very competitive and will happily grow in grassy meadows. Tended and watered it responds very well, producing long lasting carpets of foliage. Wild plant roots are thinner than Dyer’s Woodruff so I’ll be interested to see if cultivation makes a difference.

Field Madder – Sherardia arvensis

Sheradia arvensis

An agricultural weed, Field Madder, is a small creeping annual plant with thin roots.

This is a classic annual weed of agricultural areas producing small creeping plants with tiny pale pink flowers, leaf whorls of from 4 to 6 leaves looking very much like miniature madder leaves and large seeds which are produced very quickly. It’s difficult to see how this could have been used as a dye plant considering its small size, short life cycle and thin roots. The books say it was used, so I thought I’d give it a try. Seeds are not too difficult to obtain but do not readily germinate – they have a typical weed habit of staying dormant in the soil maybe for years waiting until the conditions are just right. They do produce a mass of roots so it could be worthwhile. I think that the key to obtaining an easy harvest would be to grow it in pots in good quality compost that could be washed away when the roots have grown. I do not know how much of a problem weed these plants are but they do seem to like growing with other plants which they use for support and do not do so well on their own. They are supposed to be good self seeders so we will see.

Devils Bit Scabious – Succisa pratensis

Succisa pratensis

Rosettes of Devil’s Bit Scabious planted around an Alder Buckthorn sapling in a specially created acid soil bed. There are also some first year weld plants bottom right.

Succisa pratensis

Devil’s bit scabious flower

This is a plant I’ve wanted to grow for a long time for its ability to attract bees and other pollinators. In addition, its pin-cushion-like flowers are a pretty lavender blue and open out in July to October at the same time as many of our yellow flowering dye plants. Growing some plants with a contrasting flower colour has been a bit of an obsession for us. Yellow is nice but needs contrasting colours to really bring it out so I was delighted to discover that the Devil’s Bit Scabious is also a reasonable dye plant, at least according to Jean Fraser in her book Traditional Scottish Dyes where she gives a recipe for greenish yellow with alum mordanted material. Intriguingly she also notes that according to Ethel Mairet the leaves of the Devil’s Bit plant also contain indigo, but I’ve read that before about Weld and that turned out to be nonsense.  (I can feel an experiment coming on!).
The plant grows much like woad, producing a thick rosette of large leaves in the first year or two before flowering. It is a perennial but can, according to other accounts, suffer from getting crowded out by more vigorous plants. It is notoriously difficult to germinate from seed – out of about 100 seeds I only managed to get about 4 germinations and, on previous attempts, none at all. Fortunately the plant can be obtained from specialist nurseries and we got some very healthy specimens from Rosybee which have grown very well and two of these have just started to come into flower.

Shrubs and trees

Alder Buckthorn – Frangula alnus

Frangula Alnus

Alder Buckthorn

Alder and Purging Buckthorn are often sold as hedging plants. They can be found growing in the UK countryside provided you know what they look like. And there is the rub! They look pretty much like a whole load of other small trees so part of the reason we decided to buy some saplings was to familiarise ourselves and be able to identify them in the wild. The nursery we bought the plants from (Ashridge Nursaries) were adamant that Alder Buckthorn could not be grown in our chalk soil so I have put  plants in different soils and environments to see how they get on. They arrived bare-rooted in mid March, after the late freeze relented. I heeled them in compost in a sheltered spot on the patio at home until planting them out in April. So far the best growth has been achieved on the allotment, planted in a special “acid” bed made by piling up and digging in ericaceous compost to the light chalk soil. Second best growth is in a large garden planter filled with a mixture of ericaceous and ordinary compost. The last 2 were planted into a cleared grove of Blackthorn growing on chalk soil without any compost, or any watering for that matter. Needless to say these two have not grown much at all, but they are still alive despite the drought and alkaline soil, so we will see. The bark and leaves of this and Purging Buckthorn are usually cited as sources of yellows to dark brown dye stuffs with “sap” green coming from the unripe or ripe berries (different sources give different information). Of the two species, Alder Buckthorn seems to be the main dye plant but I have been unable to find any direct comparison. Another experiment that needs doing!

Rhamnus cathartica and Frangula alnus

Purging and Alder Buckthorn roots are quite different. Black roots of Purging on left and red roots of Alder on right.

Purging Buckthorn – Rhamnus cathartica

Rhamnus cathartica

Purging Buckthorn

Very similar in appearance to Alder Buckthorn but supposedly  equally happy on acid or alkaline soil. I planted most of the saplings on chalk soil at my apiary and left them to fend for themselves. But I saved one sapling to try out in an acid bed, on the allotment (near the Alder Buckthorn) but it has not grown as vigorously and the leaves have gone yellow in places.

Both Purging and Alder Buckthorn are serious invasive pests in the United States and Canada and are banned in two US states.

Black or Quercitron Oak – Quercus velutina

Quercus velutina

Black Oak sapling

This is a large tree from central and eastern USA which became a very important commercial source of yellow dye in Europe in the 19th Century, even after synthetic dyes started to dominate. We have read a fair bit about this tree’s splendid history and that of the man who promoted it (Edward Bancroft – scientist and spy) and thought we would try and grow it mainly out of historical curiosity. Despite a warning found in one dye book that you could not grow it in the UK, we found a supplier in Cornwall (Burncoose Nurseries). So we are now the proud owners of a small sapling growing in a large planter in our back garden. It will be great to see if we can get some dye stuff from the inner bark but, let’s face it we might be long dead by the time the tree is big enough to harvest a branch or two!

Smooth Sumac – Rhus glabra

Rhus glabra

Smooth Sumac in flower

Of all the different species of Sumac, we decided on this North American one for several reasons. It’s perhaps one of the most decorative,  it is wildlife friendly and also fully hardy. It has a high tannin content and the berries it produces are said to be edible. It can produce invasive underground suckers so we are growing it in a large planter. There are plenty of other sumacs growing in peoples gardens and in waste areas around Hitchin but it’s nice to have one right there in the back garden – no foraging needed.

 

 

 

 

 

Hopefully in a year’s time we’ll have some dyed samples to show how successful these new plants have proven to be.

References

Traditional Scottish Dyes  by  Jean Fraser

A book on vegetable dyes by Ethel M Mairet

Edward Bancroft Scientist, Author, Spy by Thomas J. Schaeper

A Dyer’s Manual by Jill Goodwin

Natural Dyes for Spinners and Weavers by Hetty Wickens, A batsford craft Paperback.

The Art and Craft of Natural Dyeing, Traditional recipes for Modern use by J. N. Liles

Suppliers

Rosybee – Plants for bees http://www.rosybee.com

Poyntzfield Herb Nursery  http://www.poyntzfieldherbs.co.uk

Ashridge Nurseries https://www.ashridgetrees.co.uk

Burncoose Nurseries https://www.burncoose.co.uk

Rubiaceae. Rubia tinctorum, Sheradia arvensis, Galium verum and Asperula tinctoria

Ladies Bedstraw intergrowing with Field Madder and Dyer’s Woodruff. Top left is some Common Madder.