Monthly Archives: March 2020

the conserved Bacton Altar cloth.

Queen Elizabeth I dress (The Bacton Altar Cloth)

By Ashley Walker
Copyright 24th February 2020

Inner courtyard of Hampton Court Palace with Henry 8th Great hall on left.

We saw the social media posts about this 400 year+ old textile and noted the brightness of the green embroidery silks. Unusual we thought. The longest lasting green dyes are combinations of a yellow dye with indigo. Indigo we know can last for many centuries but what was the yellow dye? Most yellow and green natural dyes do not last long and old textiles end up in various shades of blue (from indigo), red (from madder or an insect dye) and brown from all the other dyes which have faded.

blue and red the only colours to survive on old tapestries

This is one of the many rich tapestries from Hampton Court Palace. Typical of tapestries of this age, only the blue and red dyes have survived.

We arranged with a friend to go and see the dress at Hampton Court Palace. Where colour is concerned you really need to see it with your own eyes. There were some disappointments on our way there, notably the cost of getting into the Palace – ouch! Then there was the ‘No photography’ policy and the general lack of information available on the textile’s construction. No souvenir leaflet or postcard to take away or purchase either. According to one red-coated guide, the owners of the textile (the local diocese of the Church of England) had insisted that no financial gain was allowed through merchandise. As it turned out the palace guides were not enforcing the No Photography policy in any way, so I was able to get some good pictures.

Unfortunately the reverse side of the fabric, which has the brightest colour, was not on show but the faded side was still quite colourful and the greens still discernible.

For a general history of the textile, look at the links at the bottom of this post. The articles are highly recommended. We were impressed by the skill and artistry of the original embroiderer. This master craftsperson had embroidered the entire design straight onto the cloth of silver. The plant based motifs may have been inspired by illustrations from a Herbal (a contemporary plant guide) but could also have come from other textiles of the period. Many of the plant motifs are entirely recognizable and have been worked with a fine outline and fill of very closely spaced “seed stitch”. At some point additional, embroideries were added to the dress but these are of much lesser quality and were, according to historians, done by Court noblewomen. This secondary work consists of various animals, many of which are insects. Caterpillars are particularly common. These animals, and the odd tree, were placed in the white areas between the plant motifs, seemingly at random. This lead to a rather chaotic appearance, which to my eye, spoiled the entire design. I would not be surprised if this “fault” had resulted in the fabric’s survival. Just picture the scene – Elizabeth is shown the reworked dress and notes its chaotic design. She smiles and says “thankyou ladies that’s just lovely”. Then as soon as they are gone she thinks “Oh, what can I do with it now, I can’t give it to anyone in court as it’s just too opulent, I know, I’ll send it away up north as a remembrance gift for my lady companion Blanche Parry. That way it will never be worn again”. That’s the beauty of history, you can fit any story you like to the facts.

Detail of the Bacton Altar Cloth showing floral and animal motifs. The greens and yellows on this faded side of the textile retain some of their colour, probably the result of being kept out of direct sunlight in a church for 300+years.

without the animal embroideries the design is much nicer

I have photoshopped this to show the textile as it might have appeared without the extra animal embroideries.

Portrait of Elizabeth 1st wearing a similar dress

This highly symbolic portrait of Elizabeth shows her wearing a dress of similar design to the lost dress.

Borago officinalis

So, what about the dyes used in the dress? After searching the internet, the only dyes mentioned are cochineal from Mexico and indigo from the far east. This means the blue probably comes from from Indigofera. The silk cloth (Cloth of silver) itself was probably sourced in Italy, so it is likely that the dyed embroidery thread was also sourced from abroad, which opens up the dye possibilities enormously. I would not be surprised to learn that the master embroiderer was also European, rather than English.

I have enquired with the conservators at Hampton Court about the dyes used, but as yet I have not had a reply. However, I have been in contact with Natalie Walker (no relation) who has done some research on this textile and tells me the chief conservator at Hampton Court will be publishing a paper on the subject soon. If I find out any more I will update this blog with the results.

The visit to Hampton Court Palace was a timely reminder of what can happen when extreme wealth and power is held in the hands of a tiny group of people. Queen Elizabeth II is still the official owner of the Palace.

Note: All the photos in this post were taken by the author.

See very good posts by Natalie Walker, Hampton Court and the Crown Chronicles on the Bacton Altar Cloth here:

A Mark of Craftsmanship?

The Bacton Altar Cloth – Elizabeth I’s only surviving dress – now at Hampton Court Palace

Madder dyed wool tops

Plant dyeing for feltmakers

A short post from Susan 3/3/20

The March 2020 issue of ‘Feltmatters’, the journal of the the International Feltmakers Association, concentrates on the colour Red. A big thank you to the IFA for inviting me to share my tips for getting good reds from madder on wool for felting.  If you want to read about it, you can buy the issue here.

Cover of IFA magazine feltmatters issue 138

Cover of IFA magazine feltmatters issue 138












I love the challenge of working with fleece, whether straight from the sheep or after processing into tops. There’s a forced relaxation involved all of the processes. Sorting fleece, picking out the detritus (including hedgerow thorns and dead beetles) and gently washing dirty fleece. We tend to keep the bath just for fleece washing and I bail the dirty water down onto the front garden, which is always grateful for the nutrient and irrigation.  Even with commercially prepared combed tops you have to settle into working slowly, so it wets out thoroughly, yet doesn’t become a hideous felted mess by the time the mordanting and dyeing is done.

Basket of washed fleece

Basket of washed fleece

I confess I also love equipment. We have acquired a collection of 25L fermenting bins and steel bowls which work well for preparing bulk quantity of wool fibre.

Fermenting bins for mordanting

Fermenting bins for mordanting


We use the fermenting bins for all kinds of dyeing tasks. But having lots does make it easier to cold mordant lots of manageable sized pieces of wool or silk tops in parallel. I really did use all of these when preparating for a 2 day workshop for 10 feltmakers.

And when documenting the preparation, I couldn’t resist this layout.

Fermenting bins and steel bowls

Fermenting bins and steel bowls recalling Star Wars character R2D2?















What do I use the dyed tops for?

Well, there’s the challenge …

Somehow there’s usually more appeal in getting started on another dyeing project than planning to make something. My largest felted item so far is a small blanket I made for a retreat to the Isle of Lewis. This was entirely local Hebridean and Shetland fleece, in their natural colours.  The blanket was finished just in time, so still damp when I boarded the intercity train north. But it’s super soft and lightweight. I use it at home as a chair cover.

Hebridean and shetland fleece laid out for felting

Hebridean and shetland fleece laid out for felting


Felted blanket

Felted blanket, Hebridean and Shetland fleece.





























Ashley and I have made some needle felted animals and small sculpted heads. And I have an embellishing machine intending to combine plant dyed fleece with scrap yarn and fabric. But using it is still an aspiration.

Needle felted head

Needle felted head







Felted owls

Felted owls








Finally, here’s the bath when not being used for fleece washing or a mordanting marathon.

Bath when not in use for woolcraft

Bath when not in use for woolcraft











If you are interested in a workshop on mordanting for feltmakers don’t hesitate to get in touch.